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checkReplace Magnetic Ballast, T12, and Incandescent Lighting Fixtures with More Efficient Fixtures

All PIM content was independently developed and reviewed to be vendor-, product-, and service provider-neutral.

Description

Increase energy efficiency by using more efficient lighting fixtures. As incandescent lamps and antiquated fluorescent fixtures (e.g., those using T12 lamps on magnetic ballasts) reach the end of their useful life, phase in fixtures such as those using LEDs or T8 or T5 lamps on electronic ballasts. Or, install energy-saving replacements for all fixtures at the same time.

  • Project Talking Points

    • According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s 2003 Commercial Building Energy Survey, lighting accounts for 18 percent of hospital energy use.
    • A portion of the electricity used for lighting in a building is dissipated indoors as heat. Reducing lighting energy therefore reduces heat load.
    • Historically, lighting has produced a high level of waste (energy). Replacing T12 or T8 lamps on magnetic ballasts with Super T8s on electronic ballasts can reduce energy consumption by 20–30 percent.
    • As technology has continued to evolve, more efficient lighting has become available at reasonable prices. Today, paybacks tend to be short for lighting upgrades. For example, cost guidelines for upgrading from T12s or T8s on magnetic ballasts to "Super" T8 low-watt lamps:
      • Average lamp cost is between $4 and $10 per lamp.
      • Average ballast cost is between $20 and $48 per ballast.
      • Labor rate is site-specific (average labor time should be 1 to 4 hours per fixture).
    • Specifying low-mercury bulbs or non-mercury lighting alternatives such as LED fixtures reduces risk management costs from mercury-containing lamps as well as the risk of mercury exposure from broken bulbs.
    • Your local power company may offer rebate programs for replacing magnetic ballast, T12, and incandescent lighting fixtures with more efficient fixtures.
  • Triple Bottom Line Benefits

    • Cost benefits: After installing energy-efficient lighting, hospitals save money on lighting products by having to purchase and replace fewer products less often. There are also savings to be found in energy costs. Study after study verifies that energy efficient lighting significantly reduces energy bills. See case studies below for specific examples.
    • Environmental benefits: Lighting impacts the environment in several ways, including energy usage, materials used to produce lighting products, and light's impact on the nighttime sky. Energy-efficient lighting requires less electricity, which lowers emissions from polluting power plants. Energy-efficient lighting also reduces the number of toxic chemicals released into the waste stream and reduces light pollution. Check out the Benefits Calculator to learn about defining energy reduction targets in terms of cost, fossil fuel consumption and emissions reduction.  
    • Health and safety benefits: Findings in medical science highlight the important role light plays in maintaining optimum regulation of biological rhythms and hormones on a daily basis, contributing to our overall health and well-being. Energy-efficient lighting delivers in this fundamental role while also reducing the number of toxins being released into the environment and saving energy. Also, LED lights are reported to provide better lighting for surgical teams, which helps to improve the outcomes of patients, while at the same time saving energy.
  • Purchasing Considerations

    • Partner with lighting vendors to conduct facility walkthrough’s assessing the opportunities to convert to more energy efficient lighting technologies. Vendors will also typically support the creation of an ROI analysis.
    • Ensure consideration is taken as to the appropriate ballast type – program start or instant start. Install instant-start electronic ballasts with a ballast factor > 0.85. Lamps turned on or off more than 5 times/day or controlled by occupancy sensors should have program/rapid start ballasts to extend lamp life.
    • New ballast must be rated to power a 28-watt T-8 or a 25-watt T-8 (new lamp and ballast must be electrically matched).
    • Specify bulbs with low mercury content. Note that low mercury bulbs may have an initial higher cost and may have a reduced operating life.
    • If specifying T-8 lamps, ensure (1) a color rendering index (CRI) of 85 or higher and (2) a 92% lumen maintenance efficiency over the rated lamp’s lifetime.
    • Consider end of life disposal requirements (i.e. recycling, hazardous waste) and how this will integrate with the hospitals overall waste management program. See Fluorescent Lighting Management and Recycling PIM for more information.
    • Check with your GPO on applicable contracts and resources.
  • How-To

    1. Determine who's on the team: building engineer, facility operations and maintenance staff.
    2. Consult with key departments: Infection Prevention and Safety
    3. Survey spaces in need of lightinb upgrades for compliance with recommended ambient and task lighting levels. See ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings for specific guidance on recommended lighting levels by space type.
    4. Where possible, time the lamp retrofitting plan to correspond with the scheduled lamp replacement regime.
    5. Areas with T12 lamps
      • Replace current lamps with T8s or Super T8s emitting similar mean lumen output. Prioritize lamps and ballasts with low mercury content. Install instant-start electronic ballasts with a ballast factor > 0.85. 
 Lamps turned on or off more than 5 times/day or controlled by occupancy sensors should have program/rapid start ballasts to extend lamp life.
      • Specify high-performance T-8 lamps with (1) a color rendering index (CRI) of 85 or higher and (2) a 92% lumen maintenance efficiency over the rated lamp’s lifetime.
      • Retrofit considerations:
        • New ballast must be rated to power a 28-watt T-8 or a 25-watt T-8 (new lamp and ballast must be electrically matched).
        • Low-watt T-8 lamps are sensitive to cold temperatures (< 60 F°).
        • Low-watt T-8 lamps have limited dimming capabilities.
        • Low-watt T-8 lamps are not recommended for use with occupancy sensors.
    6. Areas with incandescent lamps
      • Where feasible, replace with either compact fluorescent lamps or LED lamps with similar mean lumen output.
      • Pilot test the light quality (CRI) of replacement fixtures when compared with existing fixtures prior to performing a full-scale retrofit.
    7. Check for areas in a facility that may be over-lighted and could benefit from a wattage reduction or de-lamping (e.g., changing from a 32W T8 to a 25W T8).
    8. Consider ballast replacement as appropriate to facilitate upgrades.
    9. Dispose of all fluorescent lamp fixtures and ballasts in accordance with the facility’s pollution prevention and mercury-recycling programs.
  • Tools

    If you have an ROI tool, calculator, or similar resources to share, please contact us or participate in the discussion below.

     

  • Case Studies

    Emory Winship Cancer Institute

    • Key Points
      • Lessons learned include: Ask for input from occupants prior to designing the lighting system and track the reduction in labor associated with less frequent lamp replacement for more efficient fixtures.
      • The LEED Energy Cost Budget table can be used to demonstrate how lighting specification choices benefited the energy efficiency profile of the overall building.

    Gunderson Lutheran Health System

    • Key Points
      • Switching from T12 to T8 lamps both improved light quality and reduced operating costs.
      • Estimated six-year payback period to recoup the re-lamping investment.

    U.S. EPA Energy Star Hospital Case Studies

    • Key Point
      • Click on “Hospital (General Medical and Surgical)" to access roughly 150 case studies of ENERGY STAR-labeled hospitals that have implemented lighting retrofits. View the map to find case studies in your region.
  • Regulations, Codes and Standards, Policies

  • Cross References: LEED

    • LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations + Maintenance
      • Energy & Atmosphere Prerequisite 1: Energy Efficiency Best Management Practices—Planning, Documentation, & Opportunity Assessment
      • Energy & Atmosphere Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance
      • Energy & Atmosphere Credit 1: Optimize Energy Efficiency Performance
      • Energy & Atmosphere Credit 2.1: Existing Building Commissioning—Investigation & Analysis
      • Energy & Atmosphere Credit 2.1: Existing Building Commissioning—Implementation
      • Energy & Atmosphere Credit 3.1: Performance Measurement—Building Automation System
      • Energy & Atmosphere Credit 5: Measurement & Verification
      • Materials & Resources Credit 4: Sustainable Purchasing—Reduced Mercury in Lamps
      • Indoor Environmental Quality Credit 2.2: Controllability of Systems—Lighting
    • LEED for Healthcare: New Construction and Major Renovations
      • Energy & Atmosphere Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Efficiency Performance
      • Energy & Atmosphere Credit 1: Optimize Energy Efficiency Performance
      • Energy & Atmosphere Credit 5: Measurement and Verification
      • Materials & Resources Prerequisite 2: PBT Source Reduction –Mercury
      • Materials & Resources Credit 4: PBT Source Reduction –Mercury in Lamps
      • Indoor Environmental Quality Credit 6.1: Controllability of Systems—Lighting
  • Cross References: GGHC

    • Green Guide for Health Care Operations Section
      • Facilities Management Prerequisite 1: Energy Efficiency Best Management Practices—Planning, Documentation, & Opportunity Assessment
      • Facilities Management Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Efficiency Performance
      • Facilities Management Credit 1: Optimize Energy Efficiency Performance
      • Facilities Management Credit 3.1: Existing Building Commissioning—Investigation & Analysis
      • Facilities Management Credit 3.2: Existing Building Commissioning—Implementation
      • Facilities Management Credit 3.3: Existing Building Commissioning—Ongoing Commissioning
      • Facilities Management Credit 4.3: Building Operations & Maintenance: Building Systems Monitoring
      • Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Prerequisite 1: Mercury Reduction
  • PIM Synergies

  • Education Resources

    Energy UniversityEnergy University Courses

    The American Society for Healthcare Engineering (ASHE) has approved this course for continuing education credits. ASHE issues credits in quarter-hour increments, and a total of 10 contact hours equals 1 continuing education credit.

    Lighting I: Lighting Your Way

    Lighting is considered a “quick hit” by many building owners and managers looking to save energy and reduce costs. This class is a preliminary introduction to the four principles for efficient lighting, which every energy manager should be aware of. Improving lighting is not just about energy efficient lamps, but also about the right amount of light, the right lamps, controlling lighting, and ensuring systems are commissioned and maintained correctly.
    ASHE has approved this course for 1 CEU (10 contact hours).
    Lighting II: Defining Light

    We all know what light is. Yet most of us would find it difficult to define or describe it. Knowledge of natural and artificial light sources improves our ability to create quality interior environments and control them. In this class, we will learn how to describe and quantify light - terms that are important vocabulary when we interact with lighting professionals as we evaluate and select solutions 
    ASHE has approved this course for .50 CEU (5 contact hours).
    Lighting III: Lamp Families: Incandescent and Low Pressure Discharge

    At the heart of lighting performance is the lamp or light source. Lamps are the key determinant in the amount, quality, and distribution of light from a luminaire. Additionally, power consumption, maintenance and life cycle are lamp characteristics a facility owner will live with long after the initial purchase is made. In this class, we will learn about the key characteristics of incandescent (including halogen) and low pressure discharge lamps, particularly fluorescent. We'll learn about the advantages and disadvantages, and the appropriate applications of each lamp family. As we look at fluorescent lamps, we'll also examine ballast factor and see how ballasts contribute to energy efficiency. Certain lamps can also contribute to an effect called "low power factor". We'll look at this briefly and see how it can impact your energy bill. 
    ASHE has approved this course for .75 CEU (7.5 contact hours).
    Lighting IV: Basic Lamp Families: High-Intensity Discharge and LED

    At the heart of lighting performance is the lamp or light source. Lamps are the key determinant in the amount, quality, and distribution of light from a luminaire. Additionally, power consumption, maintenance and life cycle are lamp characteristics a facility owner will live with long after the initial purchase is made. In this class, we will learn about the key characteristics of high intensity discharge lamps, particularly metal halide and light emitting diodes. We'll learn about the advantages and disadvantages, and the appropriate applications of each lamp family.
    ASHE has approved this course for .75 CEU (7.5 contact hours).

  • More Resources

  • PIM Descriptors

    Energy, Supply Chain

    Level: Beginner

    Category List:

    • Lighting

    PIM Attributes:

    • Basic Device Upgrades
    • System Upgrades

    Improvement Type:

    • Energy

    Department:

    • Engineering/Facilities Management
  • Interested in underwriting this PIM? Contact us to find out how!

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