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checkEliminate equipment and piping leaks.

All PIM content was independently developed and reviewed to be vendor-, product-, and service provider-neutral.


Check equipment and piping for leaks, repair them where possible, and replace equipment and piping if necessary. Repairing leaks will not only reduce potable water consumption, but also save money and improve the overall performance of piping systems.

  • Project Talking Points

    • Leaks waste water, energy, and dollars. Most leaks are easy to find but require some knowledge of what to look for.
    • Drips can waste thousands of gallons of water a year. If hot water is dripping, you are also paying for wasted energy.
    • Unintended collection of water and/or moisture from leaks can lead to growth of bacteria and mold if leaks are not addressed.
    • Progressing from a passive “break-and-fix” approach to proactive leak management can save money in both the short and long term.
  • Triple Bottom Line Benefits

    • Cost benefits: Simply fixing leaks can reduce water, sewer, and energy bills as a result of reduced water consumption and water heating. Equipment and piping systems will operate more efficiently when properly sealed.
    • Environmental benefits: Reducing water consumption decreases strain on the municipal water supply and the total amount of water withdrawn from natural water bodies, protecting the natural water cycle. Reduced energy use associated with treating, supplying, and heating potable water also reduces energy-related emissions. Most importantly, reducing risks from the growth of moisture-related bacteria and mold is a primary benefit of a leak detection program.
    • Health and safety benefits: Saving money on wasteful and unnecessary tasks saves resources that can be used to accomplish the real mission of the hospital. Water conservation contributes to environmental stewardship and healthy communities.
    • Quality and Outcomes:  Metrics are in development.  If you have suggestions, please  contact us or participate in the discussion below.
  • Purchasing Considerations

    If you have suggestions for purchasing considerations, or suggested sample contract language for any product or contracted service, please participate in the discussion below.

  • How-To

    1. For leak detection, simply start with a facility-wide search for leaks. Maintenance personnel should routinely perform visual checks of equipment and pipes as part of a preventive maintenance program.
    2. Pipes: Leaks usually occur at joints or valve stems due to loose or worn fittings or failed gaskets. These issues are easy to repair by tightening the fitting or replacing the gasket.
    3. Equipment: Look for water pooling anywhere around equipment that uses water. Joints and fittings between equipment and piping are common weak points for development of leaks.
    4. Verify equipment and components that normally discharge (such as reduced pressure backflow preventers) or can discharge water (including pressure vessel temperature pressure relief valves) are operating in required ranges.
    5. Meters: Check for moisture around fittings.
    6. Keep a log of all leaks. Repeated leaks in the same location may require additional maintenance.
    7. If possible, document the cause of each leak, and estimate the amount of water lost, and the savings from fixing the leak. Tracking the value of your leak prevention program can be important in its support for resources.
    8. Start a “Spot a Leak” program. In bathrooms, utility closets, soiled utility rooms, staff lounges, and any location where a leaky sink, toilet, ceiling pipe, etc. can be found, place a small sign that says, “Report leaky faucets, running toilets, or any signs of unintended water use to Facilities at xxxx.” Educate staff to be your ambassadors for water conservation. Housekeepers can be particularly good allies as they usually visit every location in the hospital at least once a day. Track calls that come in through this program.
    9. Leak detection can also be conducted as part of a major water audit, but an audit is not necessary. Audits can be done with in-house maintenance staff or through a professional water consultant.
    10. The local water utility may also be able to assist in tracking leaks. Many utilities have leak detection devices available for lease or loan, including acoustic flow measurement and data-logging equipment.
    11. As part of leak detection analysis, confirm system water pressures are not above required levels. Elevated water pressures can cause wear and damage, creating new leaks.
  • Tools

    The Food Service Technology Center has a free leak cost calculator tool.


    If you have an ROI tool, calculator, or similar resources to share, please contact us or participate in the discussion below.

  • Case Studies

    Kirkland Air Force Base Leak Detection and Repair Program.

    Key Point

    • A leak detection and repair program undertaken in 2006 saved 179 million gallons of water annually, valued at more than $330,000, and achieved a 1.75-year payback.

    Gwent Healthcare NHS Trust in England

    Key Point

    • Site water demand was reduced by a factor of 10 after detection and repair of a 4m3-per-hour leak (see Appendix 5 in the British Department of Health document).
  • Regulations, Codes and Standards, Policies

    • Local and regional regulations: Check with your local water authority as many local and regional districts have regulations that require prevention and elimination of leaks. For example, Massachusetts has a specific set of standards outlined in their Water Conservation Standards that includes mandatory leak detection programs.
    • Uniform Plumbing Code and International Plumbing Code: These codes form the basis for most local building codes related to plumbing system design. The applicability of local building codes often depends on the scale of a retrofit.
    • California legislation: California provides several excellent reference documents, including the Water Conservation Act of 2009 and the 20x2020 Water Conservation Plan.
  • Cross References: LEED

    Neither LEED for Existing Buildings nor LEED for Healthcare has specific credits addressing leak detection and prevention.

  • Cross References: GGHC

    • Operations: Integrated Operations & Education Credit 1 Education: Staff, Patient and Community Environmental Sustainability Education
    • Operations: Facilities Management Credit FM 2.1-2.5 Potable Water Use Reduction: Total Building Reduction
    • Operations: Facilities Management Credit FM 4.1 Building Operations & Maintenance: Staff Education
    • Operations: Facilities Management Credit FM 4.2 Building Operations & Maintenance: Building Systems Maintenance
  • PIM Synergies

  • Education Resources

    If you have any information or resources to contribute, please contact us or participate in the discussion below.

  • More Resources

  • PIM Descriptors


    Level: Beginner

    Category List:

    • Central Plant
    • WATER

    PIM Attributes:

    • Repair or Optimize Existing Systems (fix what you have)

    Improvement Type:

    • Maintenance


    • Engineering/Facilities Management
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